This section covers the basics of breast cancer: causes, prevention, screening, male breast cancer plus the signs and symptoms.There is a small amount of fat between the surface skin and underlying muscle. The breast develops in this fatty layer on the front of the chest. Each breast consists of 15-20 lobes or segments. Lobes connect to ducts, and ducts lead to the nipple. The earlier a breast cancer is detected, the better the chance of curing it with treatment.  If you find a lump, get a doctor’s evaluation. Breast lumps can be either malignant (cancerous) or non-malignant (benign): 
  • Not all lumps are cancer. Up to 90% of breast lumps are not cancer. 
  • Breast tenderness and generalized fullness before a period starts is common and is not a sign of cancer. 
  • Benign breast lumps may be solitary or multiple. Their cause is likely related to the normal cycle of hormonal effects on breast tissue. There is no way to prevent these changes.

Cervical Cancer

  • Cervix cancer is also called carcinoma of the cervix, cervical cancer, or cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Pre-cancerous changes to the cervix are called dysplasia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL).
  • The cervix is part of the female reproductive system. It is the narrow, lower part of the uterus (womb) that serves as a canal between the uterus and vagina. It is about 2.5cm long.
  • The cervix makes mucus that cleans and lubricates the vagina. During childbirth, the cervix widens to allow the baby to pass from the uterus into the vagina.

Prostate Cancer

  • The prostate gland is found only in men. It produces a milky fluid that is a large portion of semen.
  • The prostate is located under the bladder and it wraps around the urethra. The urethra is the tube that carries urine from the bladder through the penis.
  • After age of 40, the prostate gland is at risk for a number of non-cancerous conditions including benign enlargement.
  • Cancer of the prostate is rare in younger men.
  • It is the most common form of cancer among Canadian and American men.
  • Most prostate cancers are very slow growing, but some can grow and spread quickly. Research is being done to detect the difference between slow and fast growing prostate cancers.
  • If the cancer is discovered before it spreads beyond the prostate gland it may be curable.

Aesophagus Cancer

  • This cancer affects more men than women (3-4 times as many men as women)
  • Black people are twice as likely to develop esophagus cancer as white people
  • Cancer of the esophagus is much more common in some other countries. For example, esophagus cancer rates in Iran, northern China, India, and southern Africa are 10 to 100 times higher than in the United States.

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